California Counties records can vary vastly from county to county both in quality and quantity. Some happen to have been carefully maintained while others have been substantially misused and overlooked. A certain amount of California records have simply disappeared. For genealogists carrying out research in California there’s no effective substitute to have an on-site search of county court house records. For Definitions of all court terms see the Genealogy Encyclopedia.
California Counties – On January 4, 1850, the California constitutional committee recommended the formation of 18 counties. They were Benicia, Butte, Fremont, Los Angeles, Mariposa, Monterey, Mount Diablo, Oro, Redding, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Sonoma, and Sutter.
California is divided into 58 counties. Each county serves as the local level of government within its borders. Counties are responsible for all elections, property-tax collection, maintenance of public records such as deeds, and local-level courts within their borders, as well as providing law enforcement (through the county sheriff and sheriff’s deputies) to areas that are not within incorporated cities.
Some counties encompass land settled in the eighteenth century; their records pre-date county formation. Land transactions and vital records recorded in the county are at the county recorder’s office. The county clerk general has probate books and files from the county’s superior court, civil court records, and naturalizations. Divorces may be in either place, depending on how filed. See also a list of links to county and county seat government run websites.
The 27 Original Counties Of California:
A committee of California’s first constitutional convention was convened on January 4, 1850. It was chaired by General Mariano Vallejo. At this committee meeting, it was suggested that California be split into 18 counties. They were:
Benicia, Butte, Fremont, Los Angeles, Mariposa, Monterey, Mt. Diablo, Oro, Redding, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Sonoma, Sutter
The committee later suggested some other changes and, from January 4, 1850 to February 18, 1850, the following 9 counties were added to the list, making a total of 27 counties:
Branciforte, Calaveras, Coloma, Colusi, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Trinity, Yuba
The committee also changed the names of several of the original counties at that time. Those changes were:
Benicia to El Dorado, Fremont to Yola, Mt. Diablo to Contra Costa, San Jose to Santa Clara, Oro to Tuolumne, Redding to Shasta
This meant that, as of February 18, 1850, the 27 counties in California were:
Branciforte, Butte, Calaveras, Colusi, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Los Angeles, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Shasta, Solano, Sonoma, Sutter, Trinity, Tuolumne, Yola, Yuba
Then, a little later in 1850, some legislature was adopted that caused some of the county names to change yet again. Branciforte became Santa Cruz and Colusi became Colusa. Yola, meanwhile, was changed to Yolo.
California gained its statehood on September 9, 1850, with its 27 counties. However, 32 more counties were created in the state after 1850. Of the original 27, only Marin county stayed exactly as it was, neither losing nor gaining land. Of the 32 created later, only 7 stayed as they were upon their creation. Those 7 are: Alameda, Alpine, Imperial, Madera, Modoc, Orange, Riverside
Many of the county boundaries have also experienced small changes over the years. The original county boundaries tended to follow the geography of the land, often being established along mountain ridges and similar natural features. These days, many of those boundaries have been altered to run along either section lines or township lines.