Statewide Massachusetts Census records that exist are 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 (fragment, see below), 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930 and 1940.
There are Industry and Agriculture Schedules 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880. The Mortality Schedules for the years 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880. The Union Veterans Schedules exist for 1890.
There are several subscription-based online databases that can supply copies of the federal census records for Massachusetts. The New England Historic Genealogical Society also has copies federal census records on microfilm.
Other repositories also have copies of such records on file. Federal agriculture, population, industry, and mortality schedules ore on file on microfilm at the Massachusetts Archives. The original schedules from 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 are also available to researchers.
The Massachusetts mortality schedule from 1850 has an indexed transcript, which was prepared by the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). The New England Historic Genealogical Society has a copy of that indexed transcript.
The National Archives-Northeast Region Pittsfield and Boston (Waltham) branches both have copies of all federal census records available, including the 1890 veterans census records.
Missing Massachusetts Censuses
Boston and most of Suffolk County are missing from the 1800 census record, but the 1798 U.S. Direct Tax for Boston record does contain some useful information.
Massachusetts State and Territorial Census
There were two state censuses conducted in Massachusetts in 1855 and 1865. They are similar to the federal census records in that they contain much of the same information.
The Massachusetts Archives holds the originals of both state census records and some have been published and indexed as well.
The archives holds completed records for the towns of Plymouth, Essex, and Middlesex. From 1850 to 1870, there were several immigrations and migrations as a result of the Industrial Revolution and other factors.
There are enough records available to track a given family in 5-year increments during that entire time, which can be quite handy to genealogical researchers.
Searchable Massachusetts Census Databases and other Helpful Links