The 1830 census was taken over a period of one year, beginning on June 1, 1830. It collected similar information to past census periods, along with some new questions introduced for the first time.
This was the first census to list categories for persons who were “aliens.” This information can be useful to point you in the direction of court records pertaining to naturalization.
Other new questions included a category for persons who were deaf, dumb or blind. This information could lead you to important institutional records.
The first family would have been recorded in June 1, 1830 and the last on June 1.1831. The numbers shown in the categories did not distinguish between who was family and any others who were in the household such as relatives, friends, employees, visitors, boarders, servants.
No matter when the census taker came, he was to record who was in the house as of June 1, 1830. If a child was born after this date they were not to be counted.
If a person died before this date, they were not to be counted. It is very probable the census taker just recorded who was there the day they arrived.
1830 Census Facts
1830 Census Number: 12,866,020
1830 Census Slave Population: 2,009,043
1830 Census Day: June 1, 1830
1830 Census duration: 12 months
1830 Census States: 24 States
1830 Census Territories: 4 Territories
% increase of population from 1820 to 1830: 33.5%
Questions Asked in the 1830 Census
Some of the questions answered by the 1830 census included:
The U.S. population increased by 33.5 percent from the 1820 census to the 1830 census.
1830 census took approximately $379,000 and 1,519 enumerators to complete the 1830 census.
First census when the government provided pre-printed forms.
Enumerators were asked to send the original or a copy to Washington.
First census that includes Florida.
The 1830 censuses were public meaning they were posted publicly so those included on the census could, if they could read, view and catch omissions and errors.
Baltimore edges out Philadelphia by 158 to claim the spot as the second largest city in the US with a population of 80,620. New York City with a population of 202,589 is by far the largest.
Historical Considerations of the 1830 Census
When you are searching for an individual in the 1830 census, you should be aware that it was possible for several families to have the same name at the time. Also, names were not always spelled correctly.
The census information can help you to identify common misspellings and separate one family’s information from another family’s information.
Slaves and Free African Americans
“Free men of color” were listed as heads of households, and their other family members may be traceable using tax records and other records from the time.
If you are looking for information about a slave, that slave will be listed under the slaveholder’s name on the census records.
10 Largest Urban Places in 1830
New York City, NY
Boston town, MA
New Orleans, LA
Northern Liberties township, PA
Southwark district, PA
Historical events surrounding the 1830 US Census
December 10, 1830 - Poet Emily Dickinson is born in Amherst MA.
January 10, 1835 - The first attempted assassination of a US President (Andrew Jackson) fails when the assailants gun misfires.
The 1830 Census recorded information from 24 states and 4 territories. The new state of Missouri was included, as well as the Arkansas Territory, Michigan Territory (inc. Wisconsin & Minnesota areas), Oregon Territory and Florida Territories.
Some County wide losses in Indiana (missing Wabash county), Massachusetts, Maryland (missing Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Ann’s, St. Mary’s, and Somerset counties), and Mississippi (missing Pike county)
Although the original data is lost, there are ongoing efforts to reproduce the 1830 Census for the missing states by using local county records such as tax lists, oaths of allegiance, land entities, militia lists, petitions, road records, and other sources.
These types of records are also known as census substitutes.
U.S. 1830 Population by State
District of Columbia