1830 Census Federal Population Schedule

The 1830 Census contains records for approximately 13 million Americans. The Fifth United States Census officially began on June 1, 1830.

Overview of the 1830 Census

The 1830 Census was taken over a period of one year, beginning on June 1, 1830. It collected similar information to past census periods, along with some new questions introduced for the first time.

This was the first census to list categories for persons who were “aliens.” This information can be useful to point you in the direction of court records pertaining to naturalization. 

Other new questions included a category for persons who were deaf, dumb or blind. This information could lead you to important institutional records.

The first family would have been recorded in June 1, 1830 and the last on June 1.1831. The numbers shown in the categories did not distinguish between who was family and any others who were in the household such as relatives, friends, employees, visitors, boarders, servants.

No matter when the census taker came, he was to record who was in the house as of June 1, 1830. If a child was born after this date they were not to be counted.

If a person died before this date, they were not to be counted. It is very probable the census taker just recorded who was there the day they arrived.

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1830 Census Header Page 1

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1830 Census Facts

  • 1830 Census Number: 12,866,020
  • 1830 Census Slave Population: 2,009,043
  • 1830 Census Day: June 1, 1830
  • 1830 Census duration: 12 months
  • 1830 Census States: 24 States
  • 1830 Census Territories: 4 Territories
  • % increase of population from 1820 to 1830: 33.5%

Questions Asked in the 1830 Census

Some of the questions answered by the 1830 census included:

  • Place of residence
  • Name of each person at residence
  • Relationship of each person to head of household
  • Home data
    - Owned or rented 
    - Value of home or monthly rental 
    - Radio Set 
    - Does family own a farm
  • Personal Description
    - Sex
    - Color or race
    - Age at last birth
    - Marital condition
    - Age at first marriage
  • Education
    - Attended school or college any time since Sept 1, 1929
    - Whether able to read or write
  • Place of Birth
    - Each person and his or her parents birthplace
    - If United States give State or Territory
    - If foreign birth give country in which birthplace is now situated
  • Native language of foreign born
  • Citizenship
    - Year of immigration into the United States
    - Naturalization
    - Ability to speak English
  • Occupation & Industry
    - Trade or profession,  type of work done
    - Industry or business
    - Class of worker
  • Employed (Yes/No)
  • Veterans
    - What war or expedition
Example of 1830 United States Federal Census of Montgomery County Tennessee
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Example of 1830 United States Federal Census of Montgomery County Tennessee

1830 Census Birth year reference chart

Age calculated as of June 1, 1830 and does not allow for the 18 month variance.
Age Category Born Between Years
Under 5 years (0-4) 1826-1830
5 & under 10 (5-9) 1821-1825
10 & under 15 (10-14) 1816-1820
15 & under 20 (15-19) 1811-1815
20 & under 30 (20-29) 1801-1810
30 & under 40 (30-39) 1791-1800
40 & under 50 (40-49) 1781-1790
50 & under 60 (50-59) 1771-1780
60 & under 70 (60-69) 1761-1770
70 & under 80 (70-79) 1751-1760
80 & under 90 (80-89) 1741-1750
90 & over 100 (90 to 99) 1731-1740
100 & over (100+) 1730 and Before

1830 Census Resources

You may find the following resources helpful in your research of the 1830 census data.

The 1830 United States Federal Census database at Ancestry.com details about 13 million individuals enumerated in the 1830 United States Federal Census, the Fifth Census of the United States.

Additionally, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to actual images of the 1830 Federal Census, copied from the National Archives and Records Administration.

Download Free a US 1830 Census Extract Form which allows you to read column headings and record information from the US Census.

Unique Features of the 1830 Census

Uniform Data

The 1830 census was the first census that was recorded in a uniform way. For the first time, forms were provided to each of the enumerators by the US government.

Therefore, it is much easier to compare and contrast the data in the 1830 census than it is to do the same tasks using older census records.

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1830 Census Form Header Page 1

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The Question Of Age

The 1830 census broke down age groups of free white males and females in an interesting way. They were categorized by age in 5-year increments up until the age of 20.

Then they were categorized in 10-year increments until age 100. There was also a category for anyone over the age of 100.

One of the advantages of this unique breakdown of ages is that it became possible to better judge the total life span and average life span of people living at that time.

Interesting facts about the 1830 census

  • Andrew Jackson is President during census.
  • The U.S. population increased by 33.5 percent from the 1820 census to the 1830 census.
  • 1830 census took approximately $379,000 and 1,519 enumerators to complete the 1830 census.
  • First census when the government provided pre-printed forms.
  • Enumerators were asked to send the original or a copy to Washington.
  • First census that includes Florida.
  • The 1830 censuses were public meaning they were posted publicly so those included on the census could, if they could read, view and catch omissions and errors.
  • Baltimore edges out Philadelphia by 158 to claim the spot as the second largest city in the US with a population of 80,620. New York City with a population of 202,589 is by far the largest.

Historical Considerations of the 1830 Census

Family Names

When you are searching for an individual in the 1830 census, you should be aware that it was possible for several families to have the same name at the time. Also, names were not always spelled correctly.

The census information can help you to identify common misspellings and separate one family’s information from another family’s information.

Slaves and Free African Americans

“Free men of color” were listed as heads of households, and their other family members may be traceable using tax records and other records from the time.

If you are looking for information about a slave, that slave will be listed under the slaveholder’s name on the census records.

Historical events surrounding the 1830 US Census 

  • December 10, 1830 - Poet Emily Dickinson is born in Amherst MA.
  • January 10, 1835 - The first attempted assassination of a US President (Andrew Jackson) fails when the assailants gun misfires.
  • February 23 to March 6, 1836 - The Battle of the Alamo.
  • May 10, 1837 - Panic of 1837 begins after months of increasing inflation and shrinking credit and causing widespread bank failures and unemployment.
  • July 2, 1839 - 57 Africans mutiny aboard the ship La Amistad while en route to Cuba.

10 Largest Urban Places in 1830

Rank Place Population
1 New York City, NY 202,589
2 Baltimore, MD 80,620
3 Philadelphia, PA 80,462
4 Boston town, MA 61,392
5 New Orleans, LA 46,082
6 Charleston, SC 30,289
7 Northern Liberties township, PA 28,872
8 Cincinnati, OH 24,831
9 Albany, NY 24,209
10 Southwark district, PA 20,581

U.S. 1830 Population by State

New York 1,918,608
Pennsylvania 1,348,233
Virginia 1,220,978
Ohio 937,903
North Carolina 737,987
Kentucky 687,917
Tennessee 681,904
Massachusetts 610,408
South Carolina 581,185
Georgia 516,823
Maryland 447,040
Maine 399,455
Indiana 343,031
New Jersey 320,823
Alabama 309,527
Connecticut 297,675
Vermont 280,652
New Hampshire 269,328
Louisiana 215,739
Illinois 157,445
Missouri 140,455
Mississippi 136,621
Rhode Island 97,199
Delaware 76,748
Florida Territory 34,730
Arkansas Territory 30,388
District of Columbia 30,261
Michigan Territory 28,004
Wisconsin Territory 3,635

States Covered in the 1830 Census

1830 Census Map
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1830 Census Map

The 1830 Census recorded information from 24 states and 4 territories.  The new state of Missouri was included, as well as the Arkansas Territory, Michigan Territory (inc. Wisconsin & Minnesota areas), Oregon Territory and Florida Territories.

The 24 states included in the 1830 Census were AlabamaConnecticutDelawareGeorgiaIllinoisIndianaKentuckyLouisianaMaineMaryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia and the District of Columbia.

What was lost from the 1830 U.S. Census?

Some County wide losses in Indiana (missing Wabash county), Massachusetts, Maryland (missing Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Ann’s, St. Mary’s, and Somerset counties), and Mississippi (missing Pike county)

Although the original data is lost, there are ongoing efforts to reproduce the 1830 Census for the missing states by using local county records such as tax lists, oaths of allegiance, land entities, militia lists, petitions, road records, and other sources.

These types of records are also known as census substitutes.

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