Although there was no census records taken during the Texas Republic (1836 to 1845), the tax records from that time can serve as a substitute 1840 census.
In 1854 and 1855 some schools took census records for children between the ages of 6 and 16. However, there were no Texas state census records taken. The school records that were taken include the names of the students and their parents or legal guardians.
The Texas State Library archives division holds those original records. Its Search Room holds the name indexes for those records. There are no county records available for counties whose names start with the letters A, B, C, or D.
Some of the extant records are held by the FHL. Others can be requested in writing from the Texas State Library. Gifford E. White, Texas Scholastics, 1854–55: Copied from the Originals in the Archives, Texas State Library (Nacogdoches, Tex.: Ericson Press, 1981) also contains some useful records.
Searchable Texas Census Resources
You may find the following resources helpful in your research of Texas census data.
See printed sources that follow and Tax Records (below) for examples of such tax records. Some published census records for this period include:
Mullins, Marion Day. The First Census of Texas, 1829–1836: To Which Are Added Texas Citizenship Lists, 1821–1845 and Other Early Records of the Republic of Texas. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1962. Special publication number 22. Lists Texans from lists of citizens and other early records.
Osburn, Mary McMillian, ed. The Atascosito Census of 1826. 1963. Reprint from Texana 1 (Fall 1963): 299-321. N.p., n.d. A publication for the Liberty County Historical Survey Committee.
Residents of Texas, 1702–1836. 3 vols. San Antonio: University of Texas, Institute of Texas Cultures, 1984.
White, Gifford Elmore, comp. , Te1830 Citizens of Texas. Austinx.: Eakin Press, 1983. Taken from records in the U.S. General Land Office (GLO).——.
The 1840 Census of the Republic of Texas. Foreword by James M. Day. Austin, Tex.: Pemberton Press, 1966.