1900 Census Federal Population Schedule

The 1900 census contains records for approximately 76 million Americans. The Eleventh United States Census officially began on June 1, 1880.

The census began on June 1, lasted for one month.  It contains what is considered to be the most accurate Soundex index created for any US census.

Overview of the 1900 Census

Soundex helps to group names by their pronunciation, even when they have a different spelling.  This is useful for researching family names that have changed in spelling over time.

Because of the loss of the 1890 census, genealogists consider the 1900 census as the most valuable of all the U.S. censuses, providing information for a 20 year gap of missing data.

Therefore, it is an excellent place to begin genealogy when you have starting information such as a family name and general location.

The 1900 census consisted originally of seven schedules. Two population schedules were prepared, one for native Americans and one for all other residents.

The five remaining schedules, containing information on agriculture, manufacturers, mortality, and crime, are not available from the National Archives. These 5 schedules were abstracted for their data and then destroyed.

1900 Census Facts

  • 1900 Census Population: 76,212,168
  • 1900 Census Duration: 1 month for rural districts or two weeks for populations over 8,000
  • 1900 Census Date: June 1, 1900
  • 1900 Census States: 45 States
  • 1900 Census Territories: 6 Territories

1900 Census Schedules

Seven schedules were  prepared for the 1900 census. They included:

  1. General Population Schedule
  2. Native Americans Population Schedule
  3. Agriculture Schedule
  4. Manufacturing Schedule
  5. Mortality Schedule
  6. Social Statistics Schedule
  7. Crime Schedule

Questions Asked in the 1900 Census

Example of the 1900 United States Federal Census for Jefferson County Arkansas
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Example of the 1900 United States Federal Census for Jefferson County Arkansas

Some of the questions answered by the 1900 census included:

  • Name of each person in household
  • Relationship to Head of Household
  • Personal Description
    - Age
    - Sex
    - Color
    - Birthplace
    - Marital Status (Single, Married, Widowed, Divorced)
    - Married within previous year
    - Occupation
    - Birthplace of parents
    - Month and year of birth
  • Education
    - Attended school in previous year
    - Ability to read and write in English
  • Home Data
    - Value of Real Estate
  • Citizenship
    - Number of years in US
    - Naturalization
    - Year of Immigration to US
    - Ability to speak English
  • Location
    - Name of street and number of house
    - City/Village/Town/Borough
    - County

1900 Census Resources

You may find the following resources helpful in your research of the 1900 census data.

The 1900 United States Federal Census database at Ancestry.com consists of all individuals enumerated in the 1900 United States Federal Census, the Twelfth Census of the United States.

Additionally, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to actual images of the 1900 Federal Census, copied from the National Archives and Records Administration.

Download Free a US 1900 Census Extract Form which allows you to read column headings and record information from the US Census.

Unique Features of the 1900 Census

Detailed Birth Information

The1900 census is lists birth month and year of each person. Census data from previous years, as well as the next two consecutive census dates, only listed the age of each person.

Detailed Marriage Information

The 1900 census also lists the number of years that a particular couple was married as of the census date.

This is a unique detail that was not always collected in previous or following censuses.

Detailed Property Information

The 1900 census was also the first to list the status of a property as owned, rented or mortgaged. This level of detail provides a rich resource for those who are reaching family history.

Historical Considerations of the 1900 Census

Native American Residents

At the turn of the century, the relevance given to the Native American population began to change.

The 1900 census lists information on Native American residents (referred to as Indians). However, some records were kept in the state census records, not in the federal records for each territory or state.

Immigration Information

As Immigration increased, it became more important to have detailed records about a citizen’s country of origin and citizenship.

Place of birth, status of citizenship, number of years as a US resident and other similar questions are answered.

The census also lists whether or not each resident can speak, read and write English.

Interesting facts about the 1900 census

  • William McKinley is President during the 1900 census.
  • The U.S. population increased by 21.0 percent over the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 Census.
  • 1900 Census was the first to list month and year of birth, record year arrived in the U.S., number of years lived in the U.S. and Naturalization status.
  • This is the first census to provide details about the status of whether the property was owned, rented or mortgaged.
  • Oklahoma census schedules and Soundex indexes are split between Oklahoma Territory to the Northwest, and Indian Territory to the Southeast.

Historical events surrounding the 1900 US Census

  • September 6, 1901 - President William McKinley is assassinated and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as president of the United States later that day.
  • December 17,1903 - Oliver and Wilbur Wright’s first flight at Kitty Hawk, NC.
  • February 12, 1909 - The NAACP was formed.

States Covered in the 1900 Census

1900 Census Map
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1900 Census Map

The 1900 Census recorded information from 45 states and 6 territories. The new state of Utah was included, as well as the Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, Alaska, Oklahoma  and Indian Territories.

The 42 states included in the 1900 Census were Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming and the District of Columbia.

What was lost from the 1900 U.S. Census?

No major loss of records for the 1900 census.

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