1880 Census Federal Population Schedule

The 1880 census contains records for approximately 50 million Americans. The Tenth United States Census officially began on June 1, 1880.

Overview of the 1880 Census

On June 1, 1880, the 1880 census taking began. Unlike previous censuses, which took several months, it was to be completed within thirty days. With one month to complete the census, less people were missed as in prior census periods.

There were two copies of every census schedule. The original copy was to be bound by county and located in the county courthouse. The copy was to be sent to Bureau of Census in Washington D.C.

The 1880 census asked similar questions to those asked in previous censuses, including name, sex, age, marital status, occupation and birthplaces of both the person in question and their parents.

Illnesses and physical and mental disabilities were also listed in the 1880 census. The census reported whether an individual was blind, deaf, dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, or crippled.

Urban households were recorded in a more accurate way in the 1880 census. Both the street numbers and the house numbers were recorded.

This is the first census to use Indian as a race. Indian families may appear in the general population census. Make sure you also check the special Indian schedules.

There were also some special Native American schedules that were taken during the 1880 census. However, in general, “Indians not taxed” were still not recorded.

1880 Census Facts

  • 1880 Census Number: 50,189,209
  • 1880 Census Day: June 1, 1880
  • 1880 Census duration: 1 month+
  • 1880 Census States: 38 States
  • 1880 Census Territories: 12 Territories

Questions Asked in the 1880 Census

Some of the questions answered by the 1880 census included:

Example of the 1880 United States Federal Census for Paulding County Georgia
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Example of the 1880 United States Federal Census for Paulding County Georgia

  • Name of each person in household
  • Relationship to Head of Household
  • Personal Description
    - Age
    - Sex
    - Color
    - Birthplace
    - Marital Status (Single, Married, Widowed, Divorced)
    - Married within previous year
    - Month of Marriage, If married within the previous year
    - Deaf, dumb, blind or insane
    - Occupation
    - Sick or temporarily disabled
    - Maimed, crippled, bedridden or otherwise disabled
  • Place of Birth
    - Each person’s parents
  • Education
    - Attended school in previous year
    - Ability to read and write in English
  • Home Data
    - Value of Real Estate
  • Location
    - Name of street and number of house
    - City/Village/Town/Borough
    - County

1880 Census Schedules

Five schedules were prepared for the 1880 census. They included:

  • Schedule 1 - Population: which was similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions
  • Schedule 2 - Mortality: which used the same inquiries as in 1870, and added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, and name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death.
  • Schedule 3 - Agriculture: which greatly expanded inquiries concerning various crops (including acreage for principal crop), and included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, and the number of livestock.
  • Schedule 4 - Social Statistics: was the responsibility of experts and special agents, rather than the enumerators.  The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population.
  • Schedule 5 - Manufacturing: which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, and machinery used.

1880 Census Resources

You may find the following resources helpful in your research of the 1880 census data.

The 1880 United States Federal Census database at Ancestry.com details about 50 million individuals enumerated in the 1880 United States Federal Census, the Tenth Census of the United States.

Additionally, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to actual images of the 1880 Federal Census, copied from the National Archives and Records Administration.

Download Free a US 1880 Census Extract Form which allows you to read column headings and record information from the US Census.

Unique Features of the 1880 Census

First census to use Indian as a race

Indian families may appear in the general population census. Make sure you also check the special Indian schedules.

Head of Household Relations

The 1880 census was the first to identify an individual’s relation to the head of household.

Enumeration Districts

The Census Bureau set up “Enumeration Districts” which were charted out on maps. There was an Enumeration supervisor for each district and was responsible for counting every person within the district and making a copy of every schedule.

Privacy rule

The 1880 census were ordered to keep the answers to the census strictly private and could not share the information with anyone. This was the beginning of 72 year privacy rule.

The general public would not be allowed to view the content of the census for 72 years.

Historical Considerations of the 1880 Census

Recognition of Women

The 1880 census was the first United States census that allowed women to work as enumerators.

It was also the first census to collect the relationship of household members to the head of the household.

This simple addition of “wife” or “daughter” beside a person’s name provides valuable insight about the relationships within the families, and could help to identify unmarried daughters.

It may even list mothers-in-law, cousins and other extended family members.

Interesting facts about the 1880 census

  • Rutherford B. Hayes is President during the 1880 census.
  • The U.S. population increased by 30.2 percent over the 39,818,449 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census.
  • It took approximately $5,791,000 and 31,382 enumerators to complete the 1880 census
  • The processing of the 1880 census data took eight years. The Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the 1890 Census.
  • The 1880 Census was the first census to document the relationship between each person and the head of household. First census to list marital status, street name and house number in addition to the birthplace of people’s parents.
  • New York City area passes the 1 million mark with a population of 1,206,299.
  • The 1880 census may provide clues to genetic diseases in earlier generations of a family. The census reported whether an individual was blind, deaf, dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, or crippled.
  • The 1880 census was the first U. S. census to use “Indian” as a race classification.
  • Indians not taxed are not in regular population schedules. Some may appear in special Indian schedules.

Historical events surrounding the 1880 US Census

  • October 26, 1881 - A gunfight breaks out at the O.K. corral in Tombstone, AZ.
  • September 4, 1882 - Thomas Edison’s Pearl Street Station became the first central power plant in the United States, generating electricity for 400 street lamps and 85 customers.
  • June 17, 1885 - The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York from France.
  • November 1889 - North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington all achieve statehood.

U.S. 1880 Population by State

New York 5082871
Pennsylvania 4282891
Ohio 3198062
Illinois 3077871
Missouri 2168380
Indiana 1978301
Massachusetts 1783085
Kentucky 1648690
Michigan 1636937
Iowa 1624615
Texas 1591749
Tennessee 1542359
Georgia 1542180
Virginia 1512565
North Carolina 1399750
Wisconsin 1315497
Alabama 1262505
Mississippi 1131597
New Jersey 1131116
Kansas 996096
South Carolina 995577
Louisiana 939946
Maryland 934943
California 864694
Arkansas 802525
Minnesota 780773
Maine 648936
Connecticut 622700
West Virginia 618457
Nebraska 452402
New Hampshire 346991
Vermont 332286
Rhode Island 276531
Florida 269493
Colorado 194327
District of Columbia 177624
Oregon 174768
Delaware 146608
Utah 143963
New Mexico 119565
South Dakota 98268
Washington 75116
Nevada 62266
Arizona 40440
Montana 39159
North Dakota 36909
Idaho 32610
Wyoming 20789

States Covered in the 1880 Census

1880 Census Map
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1880 Census Map

The 1880 Census recorded information from 38 states and 12 territories.  The new state of Colorado was included, as well as the Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, Alaska, Dakota and Indian Territories.

The 37 states included in the 1880 Census were Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and the District of Columbia.

What was lost from the 1880 U.S. Census?

All census records survived.

The following localities are known to be missing data:

  • Kentucky - Crittenden County
  • Michigan - Oscoda and Sanilac Counties
  • Missouri - St. Louis
  • New York - Bronx and Madison and Tioga Counties, New York City (i.e. Five boroughs: Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Kings)
  • North Carolina - Guilford County
  • Ohio - Allen County
  • Oklahoma
  • Utah - Rich County
  • Virginia - Henrico and York Counties
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