The Kansas federal censuses are all on file at the Kansas State Historical Society, along with the 1910 Miracode and the Soundexes for 1880 and 1900.
Missing Kansas Censuses
Territorial and state census that were taken from 1855 to 1859 were lists of registered voters. Since some people chose to boycott elections during that time, those records are incomplete.
The Shawnee, Native, and Adopted Census of 1857 is located at the Kansas State Historical Society in the archives department.
The Kansas Territory census of 1860 was actually part of the federal census for that year. There are two copies of it available. One, the original, is in Washington, while the other is held by the state of Kansas.
There are indexes available for both copies and both copies are available to researchers at the Center for Historical Research at the Kansas State Historical Society.
So, they can be easily compared to verify information. Whenever a Kansas county applied for organization, a census of that county was taken. Many of those records that still exist today can be found at the Kansas State Historical Society as well.
Kansas State and Territorial Census
State censuses for Kansas were completed in each of the following years: 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905, 1915, 1925.
Each of those census records have been placed on microfilm and the Kansas State Historical Society has created a partial index of them. A list of the indexed records can be obtained from them.
The Board of Agriculture has statistic rolls for the following years: 1873, 1877, 1896 through 1904 (incomplete), 1918, 1920, 1924, 1925 (taken as part of the state census), 1926 through 1936, 1950 through 1979.
Rolls from 1955 and prior only listed heads of households. These records can be a good research source, but researchers should be aware that they are not entirely complete and may contain some inaccuracies.
The Kansas State Historical Society is also home to enrollment cards from 1898 to 1914 for the Five Civilized Tribes. The Five Civilized Tribes were the Seminole, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Cherokee. There are also census rolls from 1885 to 1940 available, which contain information on tribes with connections to Kansas.